GBS, which normally reside in the vagina and rectum, is a conditional pathogenic bacterium. Generally, GBS infection in normal healthy people does not cause disease.
According to statistics, about 10% to 30% of pregnant women are infected with GBS, and 40% to 70% of them will be transmitted to the newborn during childbirth. If the bacteria are present in newborns, about 1 to 3 percent of them will develop early invasive infections, and 5 percent of them will die.
GBS infection induces a variety of maternal diseases
Maternal infection is characterized by bacteremia, urinary tract infection, fetal membrane infection, endometrium infection and trauma infection.
GBS infection is the main factor of premature rupture of membranes
GBS has a strong adsorption capacity and penetration ability to the chorionic membrane, which can be absorbed into the maternal tissue within 2 hours after inoculation, and then invade the chorionic membrane. Through the phagocytosis of inflammatory cells and direct invasion of proteolytic enzymes produced by bacteria, the local tension of the membranes is reduced, leading to premature rupture of the membranes. It has been reported that the incidence of premature rupture of membranes with GBS in the urine of 2,745 women is 35%.
GBS infection is highly susceptible to amniotic cavity infection
It was reported that 21% of GBS positive pregnant women had chorioamnionitis and postpartum endometritis, and analysis indicated that GBS positive was an important risk factor for chorioamnionitis.
The rate of preterm birth induced by GBS infection is up to 60%
Studies have shown that GBS positive pregnant women are 20 to 60 percent more likely to give birth to premature babies with low birth weight and very low birth weight.
GBS is the main pathogen of puerperal infection
Puerperal infection refers to reproductive tract infection by pathogens during childbirth and puerperal period, causing local and systemic inflammatory response. The incidence of puerperal infection ranged from 1% to 7.2%, one of the four major causes of maternal death. GBS is the main pathogen causing puerperal infection.
Neonatal infection with GBS induces a variety of diseases and even death
The main route of GBS transmission is vertical transmission and is related to childbirth. If a pregnant woman is infected with GBS, the newborn may inhale infected amniotic fluid at birth or infect GBS through the birth canal. Uterine labor does not prevent the newborn from contracting GBS.
According to the time of infection, neonatal infection can be divided into early invasive infection (within 7 days of birth) and late invasive infection (after 7 days of birth).
Neonatal infection GBS is mainly manifested as early invasive infection, and early invasive infection is mainly manifested by neonatal sepsis.
Neonatal infection with GBS can lead to sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis, high morbidity and mortality, and may also leave behind long-term pathological conditions such as deafness, impaired vision, developmental disorders and cerebral palsy.
The annual incidence of sepsis among newborns was 2.7 percent, according to the 10-year new haven regional survey. About half of its neonatal sepsis is caused by group B streptococcus infection.
Prenatal screening for GBS is particularly important because of the severity of symptoms and diseases associated with GBS infection in pregnant women and newborns. Delivery transmission is the main route of neonatal GBS infection. Therefore, antibiotic prevention can effectively reduce the vertical transmission of GBS and lead to early neonatal invasive infection.
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