FSH and LH both closely control the growth and reproductive activities of gonads, which synthesize and secrete androgens and estrogen through negative feedback structure-activity relations. FSH is a glycoprotein secreted by basophils in the anterior pituitary. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) produced by the hypothalamus can control the release of FSH in the anterior pituitary. Like other glycoprotein, such as: LH, TSH and HCG, FSH is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta respectively. This type of hormone is very similar in its structure, so the biological and immunological activity of each hormone depends on the uniqueness of its subunit. In women, FSH ACTS directly on granulocyte receptors and stimulates follicular growth and maturation. This increases the secretion of follicular steroid hormones and the production of LH. The resulting LH then binds to the follicular membrane cells and stimulates the secretion of steroids. Estradiol levels in the ovary begin to increase as the follicle matures, and estradiol stimulation increases FSH receptor activity and FSH follicular binding. Therefore, in women, FSH, LH and estradiol are closely linked to promote ovarian development and maturation. After menopause, castration and premature ovarian failure, FSH levels appear to increase. FSH levels may become standardized by regulating estrogen, which represents a negative feedback mechanism. Abnormal relationships between FSH and LH, FSH and estrogen are associated with neuroorexia and polycystic ovaries. There is a significant objection to this opinion that the concentration of FSH random sampling exceeds 10 miu/mL indicating an ovarian failure. In men, the development of spermatogenic tubules and maintenance of spermatogenesis are also regulated by FSH. However, unlike estrogen, male hormones do not reduce FSH levels, so it only shows a negative feedback relationship with serum LH. FSH levels have not been fully understood, but it has been found to increase in men with low sperm counts. For example, testicular cancer can reduce serum FSH concentration and increase LH concentration. Therefore, it is speculated that the significant increase in LH concentration may be caused by the cross-reaction with hcg-like substances secreted by testicular cancer. High levels of FSH were found in men with primary testicular dysfunction and creutzfeldt-syndrome. An increase in FSH concentration also occurs in the case of hunger, renal failure, hyperthyroidism and liver cirrhosis.
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