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Microspironema Pallidum

Treponema pallidum is the pathogen of syphilis, because it is transparent, not easy to stain, so it is also called the white spirochete. Syphilis is a widespread venereal disease, and the incidence of syphilis has rebounded in China. Treponema pallidum only infects human beings. Acquired syphilis is transmitted mainly through sexual contact. Fetal transmission of syphilis from the treponema pallidum through the placenta, from umbilical cord blood circulation to the fetus, can cause fetal systemic infection. Spirulina can cause fetal death or miscarriage by proliferating in the fetal intestines and tissues.

Pathogenicity
People are the only source of infection of syphilis, due to different ways of infection can be divided into congenital syphilis and acquired syphilis.

The former is syphilis of the pregnant woman through the placenta to the fetus; The latter are post-natal infections, 95 percent of which are directly transmitted through sexual intercourse, and a few are contracted through indirect means such as blood transfusion.

Congenital syphilis is also known as fetal syphilis. Syphilis spirochete enters fetal blood circulation through placenta, cause fetal whole body infection, spirochete is in fetal viscera (liver, spleen, lung and adrenal gland) and tissue in a large number of reproduction, cause miscarriage or stillbirth, if the fetus is not dead, it is called syphilis child with skin plum poison tumor, periostitis, serrated teeth, neurogenic deafness and other symptoms.

Acquired syphilis has complex manifestations and can be divided into three stages according to its infectious process:

Incipient syphilis: after treponema pallidum invades skin mucosa about 3 weeks, appear painless hard knot and ulcer in invasions local, say hard chancre. Infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages was observed by local microscopy. Chancre often occurs in the external genitalia, and its ulcer exudate contains a large number of treponema pallidum, highly infectious. Chancre often healed naturally and entered the second stage after a asymptomatic occult period of 2-3 months.

Stage 2 syphilis: this period of the main performance of the whole body skin mucosa produces syphilis rash, the whole body lymph node enlargement, sometimes also involving bone, joint, eye and other organs. Treponema pallidum is abundant in syphilis rash and lymph nodes. Without treatment, the symptoms can generally disappear after 3 weeks to 3 months and be healed completely. Some cases may recur after 3-12 months. Secondary syphilis due to improper treatment, after 5 years or more of repeated attacks, and into the third phase.

Stage iii syphilis: it is mainly manifested as ulcerative damage of skin mucosa or granulomatous lesions of internal organs (myxomatosis). In severe cases, after 10-15 years, it causes damage to the cardiovascular and central nervous system, leading to aneurysm, tuberculosis of spinal cord and paralysis of the whole body.
Stage I and stage ii syphilis are also known as early syphilis, which is highly contagious and less destructive. Stage 3 syphilis is called advanced syphilis again, this period infectivity is small, the disease course is long, and destroy greatly.

It has not yet been proved that treponema pallidum endotoxin or secretion exotoxin, its pathogenesis is not yet clear, may be direct damage to the host cell and helix and Ⅲ, Ⅳ type of allergy.

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