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Prostate Specific Antigen Index (PSA)

1.Prostatitis. Prostate infection causes inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatitis is common in men under 50 and is often treated with antibiotics.

2.Age. The prostate gland naturally increases as men age. This has nothing to do with prostate health.

3.Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is also associated with prostatic hypertrophy. That doesn't mean prostate cancer. Prostate hyperplasia is common in men over the age of 50 and can often cause urinary problems, such as frequent urination or difficulty in urinating.

4.Prostate cancer. Elevated PSA may also be a signal for prostate cancer. If your PSA is elevated, your doctor will also perform a rectal exam to see if there is a suspicious lump in the prostate gland. If it is suspected to be prostate cancer, it may also require a prostate biopsy.

Monitoring PSA changes is also important. If PSA continues to rise, there is a high risk of prostate cancer. If this is the case and the biopsy is negative, the doctor will probably recommend that you take a subsequent PSA test and redo it within six months.

5.Urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection (UTI) may cause prostate irritation and inflammation, causing PSA to rise. If you have a urinary tract infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics.

After urinary tract infection symptoms disappear, PSA should have returned to normal indicators, when a PSA test must be done. Men with an enlarged prostate have a higher risk of urinary tract infection.

6.Some medical procedures. Certain medical procedures or examinations sometimes interfere with the prostate, causing PSA elevation, including prostate biopsy, cystoscopy, digital rectal examination, and catheterization. Once the prostate returns to normal, PSA should drop within a few days.

7.Sexual behavior. After sexual intercourse or ejaculation, PSA can also rise, the increase range is usually small, hardly observed changes, and should return to normal after a few days.

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