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Prostate Specific Antigen

Prospecific antigen (PSA) is secreted by prostate epithelial cells and belongs to the kinase family protein, which exists in prostate tissue and semen, and the serum content of normal people is extremely small. Prostate specific antigen mainly exists in serum in three forms, i.e., comparative free prostate specific antigen (fPSA), accounting for 10% ~ 30% of the total prostate specific antigen (tPSA). The complex formed by the synthesis of prostate specific antigen and serum 1- antichymotrypsin (PSA-ACT); Also, the complex formed by the binding of prostate-specific antigen and 2-macroglobulin enzyme (PSA- q 2M). The latter two are also known as combined prostate-specific antigen (cPSA). The main physiological function of prostate-specific antigen is to prevent semen from coagulation. It has high specificity of tissue and organs, and is currently the preferred marker for prostate cancer diagnosis.

Clinical significance
If serum tPSA and fPSA are increased and tPSA/fPSA is decreased, the diagnosis of prostate cancer is considered to improve the specificity and accuracy of diagnosis. Diseases of prostatitis, prostatic hypertrophy, nephritis, prostatic polyps and urogenital system can also be seen with mild serum tPSA and fPSA. When prostate cancer is diagnosed with tPSA or fPSA alone, the effect of benign prostate diseases cannot be excluded.

Normal reference range
Total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) : < 4.0c /ml; Free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) : ml; FPSA/tPSA: > 0.25.

Precautions
1. Prostate massage, prostate biopsy, rectal fingering, indwelling urethral catheter and cystoscope should be avoided before blood sample collection.
2. PSA values measured by different methods are different and cannot be mixed with each other.
3. PSA should be measured 8 weeks after symptom disappearance.
4. Prolonged cycling is easy to cause elevated serum PSA levels.
5. Hormone therapy can affect the expression of PSA and lower PSA level.
6. Blood samples should be centrifuged and refrigerated within 3 hours of collection, and frozen for no more than 24 hours.
7. Age has an influence on serum PSA level, which increases with age.

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